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Levetiracetam (LEV) is new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), usually used with other drugs in case of inadequate control of seizures. It is usually discharge with the breast milk. This study was conducted for the evaluation of the effect of levetiracetam on the kidney after 3 and 7 day newborn albino rats (Rattus rattus). A total of 20 rats were taken which were divided into two groups (A/control and B/ treated). The rat pregnant group (A) represents control group which has given distilled water orally during the pregnancy period and continued in taking of till one week newborn and (B) represents treated groups the drug was administered (350 mg/kg/day) orally during the pregnancy period and continued in taking of drug till one week newborn. The statistical analysis of the result revealed that the mean values of the glomeruli diameter at 3 and 7 days newborn of the treated groups showed significant increase (p<0.05), and the mean values of the renal tubules diameter at 3 days newborn of the treated groups showed no significant increase (p≥0.05), but at 7 day newborn of the treated group showed significant increase (p<0.05). Histological study of the kidneys in treated group at 3, 7 days newborn, showed histopathological effect of kidney tissue represented by cortex damage where glomerulus emerged (degeneration , loss there nucleus, glomerular dead cell , small in size, glomerular cells accumulation and enlargement space was present between the glomerulus and glomerulus space , shrinking and atrophy of glomerulus). As well as, the damage was evident in the medulla where tubules emerged (swelling epithelial cells of collecting tubules , enlargement in size together narrow space between the proximal convoluted tubule, degeneration of collecting tubules , loss there nucleus and detached cells of collecting tubule from basement membrane). This study disclosed that LEV can induce already not reported severe malformation if it is used constantly through the implantation, an organogenesis stages of pregnancy. Therefore, it is proposed that great caution should be practiced in using LEV during the early stages of pregnancy until further studies are performed to better understand these effects.
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