Approximation Solution of Fuzzy Singular Volterra Integral Equation by Non-Polynomial Spline

Main Article Content

Zahraa A. Ibrahim
Nabaa N. Hasan


A non-polynomial spline (NPS) is an approximation method that relies on the triangular and polynomial parts, so the method has infinite derivatives of the triangular part of the NPS to compensate for the loss of smoothness inherited by the polynomial. In this paper, we propose polynomial-free linear and quadratic spline types to solve fuzzy Volterra integral equations (FVIE) of the 2nd kind with the weakly singular kernel (FVIEWSK) and Abel's type kernel. The linear type algorithm gives four parameters to form a linear spline. In comparison, the quadratic type algorithm gives five parameters to create a quadratic spline, which is more of a credit for the exact solution. These algorithms process kernel singularities with a simple technique. Illustrative examples use MathCad software to deal with upper and lower-bound solutions to fuzzy problems. The method provides a reliable way to ensure that an exact solution is approximated. Also, figures and tables show the potential of the method.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ibrahim, Z. A. ., & Hasan, N. N. . (2023). Approximation Solution of Fuzzy Singular Volterra Integral Equation by Non-Polynomial Spline. Ibn AL-Haitham Journal For Pure and Applied Sciences, 36(1), 407–414.
Author Biographies

Zahraa A. Ibrahim, Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences,Mustansiriyah University



Nabaa N. Hasan, Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences,Mustansiriyah University




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