Environmental parameters drive the phytoplankton community structure: a case study in Baghdad Tourist Island Lake, Iraq

Main Article Content

Taibat A. Wahhab
Fikrat M. Hassan


Phytoplankton community is a model for of monitoring  aquatic systems and interpreting the environmental change in aquatic systems. The present study aimed to forecast environmental parameters that drive the change of phytoplankton community structure in the lake. The present study was carried out in Baghdad Tourist Island Lake (BTIL) for the period From October 2021 to May 2022. The study included the quality and quantity of phytoplankton, moreover, the highest and lowest value of the physical and chemical parameters were (Water temperature (13-30 °C), Light penetration (94-275cm), electric conductivity (837-1128 µS/cm), salinity (0.5-0.7 ‰), pH (7-8.2), total alkalinity (126-226 mg CaCO3/L), total Hardness (297-395 mg CaCO3/L), Calcium (62-98 mg/L), Magnesium (59-75mg/L), Sodium (45-77 mg/L), Potassium (4-9 mg/L), dissolved oxygen (6-9 mg/L), total dissolved solids (586-777 mg/L), total phosphorus (0.1-0.7 mg/L), total nitrogen (0.2-3 mg/L). Monthly samples were taken from the subsurface water from three sampling sites in the Lake and the results and presented as dry and wet seasons. A total of 127 algal taxa was identified in the dry and wet seasons with the dominancy of diatoms (Nitzschia, Gomphonema, Navicula, Ulnaria) and followed by Cyanophyceae (Oscillatoria, Merismopedia) and Chlorophyceae (Cladophora), while Dinophyceae (Ceratium, Gymnodinium), and Euglenophyceae (Euglena) were uncommon. The lowest total cell number of phytoplankton was 221cell*104 /L in the first site during the wet season, while the highest total cell number of phytoplankton was recorded at the third site with 323×104 cells/L in the dry season. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed the impact of environmental parameters on phytoplankton community structure. Therefore, the changes in phytoplankton species were noticed in the present study in comparison with previous periods and this finding is a warning of alteration in the environmental condition of the lake.  

Article Details

How to Cite
Wahhab, T. A. ., & Hassan, F. M. . (2023). Environmental parameters drive the phytoplankton community structure: a case study in Baghdad Tourist Island Lake, Iraq. Ibn AL-Haitham Journal For Pure and Applied Sciences, 36(1), 74–87. https://doi.org/10.30526/36.1.3001


Al-Haidarey, M.; Abdumunem, I.; Abbas, M.; Al-Ansari, N. The trophic state index of Bahr Al-Najaf depression reservoir, Iraq. Journal of Environmental Hydrology 2016, 24.

Bhaskar, K.; Nautiyal, S.; Khan, Y.I.; Rajanna, L. A preliminary study on Phytoplankton in Fresh water-Lake of Gogi, Yadgir district, Karnataka. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 2015, 4(4),2030-2037.

Wetzel, R.G. Limnology: lake and river ecosystems. gulf professional publishing 2001.

Bae, M.J.; Park, Y.S. Biological early warning system based on the responses of aquatic organisms to disturbances: a review. Science of the Total Environment 2014, 466, 635-649.

Litchman, E.; Klausmeier, C.A. Trait-based community ecology of phytoplankton. Annual review of ecology, evolution, and systematics 2008,615-639.

Gligora Udovič, M.; Cvetkoska, A., Žutinić, P.; Bosak, S.; Stanković, I.; Špoljarić, I.; Mršić, G.; Kralj Borojević, K.; Ćukurin, A.; Plenković-Moraj, A. Defining centric diatoms of most relevant phytoplankton functional groups in deep karst lakes. Hydrobiologia 2017, 788(1), 169-191.

Pandey, L.K.; Bergey, E.A.; Lyu, J.; Park, J.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Depuydt, S.; Oh, Y.T.; Lee, S.M.; Han, T. The use of diatoms in ecotoxicology and bioassessment: Insights, advances and challenges. Water Research 2017, 118,39-58.

Park, J.; Bergey, E.A.; Han, T.; Pandey, L.K. Diatoms as indicators of environmental health on Korean islands. Aquatic 2020, 227, 105594.

Van Dam, R.A.; Camilleri, C.; Finlayson, C.M. The potential of rapid assessment techniques as early warning indicators of wetland degradation: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Water Quality. An International Journal 1998, 13(4), 297-312.

Hussian, A.E.; Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, A.; Toufeek, M.E.; El-Monem, A.M.A.; Morsi, H.H. Phytoplankton response to changes of physicochemical variables in Lake Nasser, Egypt. Journal of Elementology 2015, 20(4).

Varadharajan, D.; Soundarapandian, P. Effect of physico-chemical parameters on species biodiversity with special reference to the phytoplankton from Muthupettai, South East Coast of India. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change 2014, 5(5),1.

Ismail, A.M. Ecological and comparative study between Baghdad Touristic Island Lake ang Tigris River within Baghdad. 1989.

Kadeem, Z. J.; Hassan, M.; Al Obaidy, A.H. M.J. Monitoring of Phytoplankton in the Artificial Lake Comparison Study, IOP Conf. Series Earth and Environ. Sci. 2021,779,1755-1315

Al-Dawoodi, N.A.; Al-ani, H.A.A.; Talib, A.H. Limnological Features Baghdad Island Lake Baghdad City, Iraq. Indian Journal of Ecology 2022, 48 Special issue (18) 354-359.

Tumas, Y.Y; Hassan, Z A R. The Properties of Tourism Services and Entertainment in the City of Baghdad (Baghdad Island Park, Tourism). Journal of the College of Education for Women 2015, 26(2).

APHA. Standard Methods for Examination of water and wastewater. 23rd editi. Rodger B. Baird. Andrew D. Eaton EWR, editor. Washington 2017, DC 20001-3710: American Public Health Association.

Furet JE, Benson-Evans K. An evaluation of the time required to obtain complete sedimentation of fixed algal particles prior to enumeration. British Phycological Journal 1982, 17(3):253-8.

Wehr, J.D.; Sheath, R.G.; Kociolek, J.P. (Eds.). Freshwater algae of North America: ecology and classification. Elsevier 2015.

Round, F.E. Crawford RM and Mann DG. Diatoms: biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge university press 1990.

Love, J.; Selker,R.; Marsman,M.; Jamil,T.; Dropmann, D.; Verhagan,J. ; Wagenmakers. JASP: Graphical statistical software for common statistical designs. J Stat Softw 2019, 88(1),1-17. The Comprehensive R Archive Network (r-project.org).

Ter Braak, C.J.; Smilauer, P. CANOCO reference manual and CanoDraw for Windows user's guide: software for canonical community ordination (version 4.5) 2002, www. canoco. com.

Mohammed ZA. Ecological study of epiphytic algae on phragmites SP. And Typha sp. Hydrophytes in Kufa river. Journal of Applied. Physical and Biochemical Research 2015, (1) 117-32.

Maulood, B.K.; Hinton, G.C.F.;Whitton, B.A.; Al-Saadi, H.A. On the algal ecology of the lowland Iraqi marshes. Hydrobiologia 1981,80(3),269-276.

Murray-Tortarolo, G.; Jaramillo, V.J.; Maass, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Sitch, S. The decreasing range between dry-and wet-season precipitation over land and its effect on vegetation primary productivity. PloS one 2017, 12(12), 0190304.

Shakirat, K.T.; Akinpelu, A.T. Study of heavy metals pollution and physico-chemical assessment of water quality of River Owo, Agbara, Nigeria. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering 2013, (7), 434-441.

Omer, N.H. Water quality parameters. Water quality-science, assessment and policy 2019,18:1-34.

Cole, G.A. Text book of Limnology, 3rd. The CV Mosby Co. St. Luis, Toronto London 1983.

Smith, R. Current methods in aquatic science. Univ Waterloo, Canada 2004.

Al-Lami, A. A.; Sabri, A.W.i; Mohsen, K. A.A.; Al-Dulaimi AA. The environmental effects of the Thistle River on the Tigris River: A- Physical and chemical properties. Sci.J Iraqi At Energy Organ 2001,3(2),122–136.

Al-Asadi, SH.A.A. An environmental study of the algae community and some environmental pollutants in the Husseiniya River. Holy Karbala / Iraq. PhD thesis, College of Education for Pure Sciences - University of Karbala 2015.

Sharma, S.; Tali, I.; Pir, Z.; Siddique, A.; Mudgal, L.K. Evaluation of physicochemical parameters of Narmada River, MP, India. Researcher 2012,4(5),13–9. 91 141.

Darweesh, S.F.A. Water Quality Assessment of Tigris River by Diatoms Community between Al-Aziziyah and Kut/Iraq 2017.

AL-Saeady, R.N.Q. An Ecological Study of Epiphytic Algae on Aquatic Macrophytes in Tigris River within Baghdad city/ Iraq, A Thesis to Coll Sci Women, Univ Baghdad 2014.

Sims, J.T.; Sharpley, A.N. Phosphorus: agriculture and the environment. American Society of Agronomy, 2005.

A l-Janabi Z.Z.; AL-Obaidy, A.H.M.J. Hassan, F.M. A brief review of water quality indices and their application, IOP Conf. Series: Environmental Science 2021, (1) 012088,1-12.

Maulood, B.K.; Hassan, F.M. Algal Studies in Iraqi Inland Waters. A Review. Tigris and Euphrates Rivers: Their Environment from Headwaters to Mouth 2021, 553-570.

Bellinger, E.G.; Sigee, D.C. Freshwater Algae: Identification and Use as Bioindicators. Journal of Applied Phycology 2013, 25(4), 1265-1266.

Walther, G.R.; Post, E.; Convey, P.; Menzel, A.; Parmesan, C.; Beebee, T.J.; Fromentin, J.M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O. ; Bairlein, F. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 2002, 416(6879), 389-395.

Mooij, W.M.; Hülsmann, S.; De Senerpont Domis, L.N.; Nolet, B.A.; Bodelier, P.L.; Boers, P.; Pires, L.; Gons, H.J.; Ibelings, B.W.; Noordhuis, R.; Portielje, R. The impact of climate change on lakes in the Netherlands: a review. Aquatic Ecology 2005, 39(4), 381-400.

Ariyadej, C.; Tansakul, R.; Tansakul, P.; Angsupanich, S. Phytoplankton diversity and its relationships to the physico-chemical environment in the Banglang Reservoir, Yala Province. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 2004, 26(5), 595-607.

Pokhrel, S.; Ghimire, N.P.; Rai, S.K. Seasonal variation of algal diversity with reference to water quality in Jagadishpur Reservoir, Nepal. Limnological Review 2021, 21(4),189-199.

Maulood, B.K.; Hassan, F.M. Phytoplankton and Primary Production in Iraqi Marshes. In: Jawad, L.A. (eds) Southern Iraq's Marshes. Coastal Research Library 2021, 36,Springer, Cham.

Armbrust, E. V. The life of diatoms in the world’s oceans. Nature 2009, 459(7244),185–192.

Baliarsingh, S.K.; Srichandan, S.; Lotliker, A.A.; Sahu, K.C.; Srinivasa Kumar, T. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Environmental monitoring and assessment 2016, 188(7),1-15.

Li, R.; Xu, Q.; Zhang, G.; Cheng, X.; Sai, B.Y.R.T. Effects of various total dissolved solids (TDS) on the growth of phytoplankton. Research of Environmental Sciences 2013, 26(10),1072-1078.

Lowe, R.L.; Keeled and canalled raphid diatoms. In Freshwater Algae of North America 2003,669-684. Academic Press.

Reynolds, C.S. The ecology of phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press 2006.

Jin,Y.; Yu, R.; Zhang,Z.; Zhang, Q.; Li, M.; Cao, Z.; Wu, L.; Hao, Y. Spatiotemporal variability of phytoplankton functional groups in a shallow eutrophic lake from cold, arid regions. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 2020, 192(6), 1-21.

Galinato, M.I.; Evangelio, J.C. Dynamics of Plankton Community in Banahao-Palhi River in Leyte, Philippines. Annals of Tropical Research 2016, 38(2), 130-152.

Serino, E. K. L.; Belonias, B. Z. Planktonic algae as bioindicators of water quality in Pagbanganan River, Baybay City, Leyte. Annals of Tropical Research 2020, 42(2),43-51.

Shcherbak, V.I.; Genkal, S.I.; Kravtsova, O.V. Centric diatoms (Centrophyceae) of water bodies of urban agglomerations. Hydrobiological Journal 2018, 54(6).

Baliarsingh, S.K.; Srichandan, S.; Lotliker, A.A.; Sahu, K.C.; Srinivasa Kumar, T. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Environmental monitoring and assessment 2016, 188(7), 1-15.